What is Facial Nerve Decompression?

A nerve decompression surgery where abnormal compression on the facial nerve is relieved is known as facial nerve decompression.

Compression and pressure of any cause on a peripheral nerve can cause blockage of the nerve impulse. This means that the nerve can no longer send electrochemical impulses and hence does not send signals to the brain or from the brain to the muscles.

There might also be loss of the nerve's myelin sheath and degeneration of the nerve in the area affected, but it does not affect axons beyond this site.

The facial nerve is a mixed nerve with sensory and motor nerve fibers, and hence compression can create sensory and motor deficits.

Types of Facial Nerve Compression:

Facial nerve compression is mainly of three types. The type of injury also gives an idea about the prognosis,

  • Neuropraxia: Rapid and complete recovery of function and no Wallerian degeneration.
  • Axonotmesis: Necrosis of the distal segment and Wallerian degeneration.
  • Neurotmesis: This type involves endoneurium with Wallerian degeneration.

What are the causes of Facial Nerve Compression?

Facial nerve compression can be caused by several specific reasons, which includes:

  • Bell's palsy: Complete paralysis or partial weakness of the muscle of facial expression.
  • Herpes Zoster Oticus: Viral infection is the cause of this and is often associated with the herpetic eruption of the meatus and cavum conchae.
  • Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome: Tend to occur before 18 years and are often associated with recurring facial palsy and face edema.
  • Skull Fracture: Fracture of the temporal bone and petrous bone can cause facial nerve compression
  • Birth Injury: During the delivery of the child, facial nerve trauma can cause.
  • Suppurative Otitis Media: Inflammation and edema caused by this condition affect the facial canal and, in turn, cause compression of the facial nerve.
  • Parotid Swelling: Tumors which are formed in the parotid gland can cause compression of motor parts
  • Tumors: Facial nerve tumors like perineuromas and schwannomas can compress the facial nerve.

The decompression surgery aim is to open the affected nerve sheath and area to release pressure. This improved blood circulation, compression on the nerve fibers, and minimized the damage to distal nerve fibers.

Dr. Neetu Modgil, with experience of 15+ years, is here to provide you with the most advanced facial nerve decompression surgery with the utmost facility and care.

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